LFS-1 BIOREMEDIATES THE FOLLOWING CONTAMINATES IN SOIL AND WATER:
Alkanes (Gasoline, Diesel, Fuel Oil, etc.)
Chlorinated Hydrocarbons (Trichloroethylene, Penta & Tetrachlorophenol, etc.)
Aromatics (Toluene, Xylene, 1,2,3, Trimethylbenzene, etc.)
Ketones (Methyl Isobutyl Ketone, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, etc.)
Alcohols (Isopropanol, Isobutanol, Ethyl Alcohol, etc.)
Aliphatic and Aromatic Solvents (Naphtha)
Mixed Hydrocarbons (Mineral Spirits)
Petroleum hydrocarbons belong to a family of organic chemicals called Alkanes. The aerobic biological mechanism of alkane metabolism in both short and long chain hydrocarbons occurs monoterminally to the corresponding alcohol, aldehyde and monobasic fatty acid. The primary alcohol derived from alkane is oxidized to a fatty acid by aldehyde dehydrogenase. The end by-products of these reactions are fatty acids, carbon dioxide and water.
PATHWAY OF ALKANE OXIDATION
(Primary Fatty Alcohol)
*Note: From this point the process can proceed anaerobically
(Monocarbozylic Fatty Acid)
(Hydroxy Fatty Acid)
(Dicarboxylic Fatty Acid)
Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons may be disposed of or treated in several ways: Regulated permitted landfills, thermal incineration and bioremediation. The latter is a method that treats the soils and renders them non-hazardous, thus eliminating any future liability that may result from landfill problems or violations.
Landfill disposal costs range from $34 per yard to over $200 per yard depending on hydrocarbon concentration. Thermal incineration costs range from $60 to over $100 per yard. Bioremediation costs range from $20 to $40 per yard. Bioremediation can be done on site or at a bioremediation facility.
COMPARISON OF BIOREMEDIATION AND OTHER TECHNIQUES
In the past, clean-up approaches were limited to digging up contaminated soils and hauling them away, or leaving the contamination in place and covering it with a soil cap to prevent rainfall leaching. Today, excavation remains as a viable alternative to clean-up; however, new advanced technologies have evolved. These new techniques include the following:
Soil Gas Extraction: A process by which petroleum vapors are removed from the soil using wells and vacuum pumps. Volatile compounds are extracted from the area between soil particles by applying negative pressure to screened wells in the vadose zone.
Low Temperature Thermal Stripping: A process by which soil is excavated and fed into a mobile unit designed to heat the soil and drive off contaminates.
Excavation: A process which involves the digging up of contaminated soils and hauling them away.
Bioremediation: Is a process which uses naturally occurring microorganisms to enhance normal biological breakdown. It is an effective method for treating many hazardous materials.
Of all the different processes available for clean-up of sites, Bioremediation is the best and most cost effective method for remediation, with respect to environmental liability. The nature and location of the contamination, the type of soils and geological conditions, determine which method of remediation is best for each individual clean-up site.
Works wonderfully in the railroad industry. Cleaning pits filled with oil.
CURRENT BIOREMEDIATION METHODS INCLUDE: The use of liquid suspended live microbes, indigenous microbes and dehydrated microbes.
LIQUID SUSPENSION OF LIVE CULTURED MICROBES (LFS-1)
This method uses living cultures of known hydrocarbon digesting microbes and secondary microbes that are known to digest the waste products produced by the primary microbes. This method is superior to the dehydrated method because of the following:
1. The number of bacterial species can easily be preserved during this process and the bacterial colony counts are greater than that of the dehydrated microbes method, thus it is a stronger and more effective method.
2. This method involves no dehydrating and rehydrating of bacteria that can rupture the cell walls, causing the colony counts to drop.
3. The microbes can immediately begin their digestive process as they are inoculated into the contaminated substance.
4. There is a significant amount of nutrients supplied in this mixture.
5 .The liquid suspension live microbes mixture can be custom tailored for each site.
6. The liquid suspension live microbes method is less expensive and more effective than the dehydrated microbes method.
7. There is no residue to clog up screens in pumps or spraying equipment.
The introduction of dehydrated microbes to hydrocarbon contaminated soils can be an effective method for remediation. The major drawbacks to this method are the following:
1. Only a limited number of bacterial species can be preserved with this process.
2. The dehydrating and rehydrating of bacteria rupture the cell walls, causing the colony counts to be low.
3. Facultative aerobes are frequently destroyed or injured during the dehydration process. The surviving microbes are "shocked" and require a longer period of time to grow and begin their hydrocarbon digestion.
4. A very limited number of nutrients are supplied in the dried mixture.
5. The dried mixture is less effective the longer it stays dormant.
6. The dehydrating method is much more expensive and less effective than other methods of Bioremediation.
7. Bran flakes that are used to absorb the dried microbes must be filtered out before use with most spraying equipment.
INDIGENOUS MICROBES METHOD
The use of indigenous microbes is often referred to as Biostimulation. This method focuses on enhancing the indigenous (native) bacterial colonies by the addition of oxygen and nutrients. It requires the culturing of existing bacteria and monitoring of in-situ strains with aerobic plate counts. Bioremediation is most effective when the bacteria present are the best hydrocarbon degraders for the job.
LFS-1 tm GENERAL USE INSTRUCTIONS
1. Sample stockpiles for BTEX, TPH, and TCLP metals or as required by regulatory agencies.
2. The pH must be in the 6-9 range and should be maintained as such.
3. Screen soil, or grind to uniform size and consistency. The soil should be as fine as possible so that even application of bio-product can be achieved.
4. A suitable place for the bioremediation should be selected so that the ambient temperature can be kept at 65° or above. Lower temperatures reduce the metabolic rate of the bacteria and extends the remediation times.
5. Large Scale Application - For large scale application of bacteria, the 40 lb bucket of nutrient should be added to approximately 50 gallons of water, preferable dechlorinated. This mixture of water and nutrient should be added to the bacteria (LFS-1) at a ratio of 50:50. For example, treatment of 1 cubic yard of soil would take 1/2 gallon of LFS-1 and 1/2 gallon of nutrient and water mix. To insure proper fragmentation of the soils, feed the soils through soil grinders, shredders, pug mills or an appropriate device such as the Royer/Cooper Sprayer. The finer grain size the better, and there should be no lumps or clods present. LFS-1 and nutrient mixture should be applied when soils are exiting the grinding device. NOTE: Once the nutrient is added to the LFS-1 it must be used quickly due to the fact that the bacteria will undergo extremely rapid growth.
6. Soil should be placed on plastic sheeting approximately 10 mil and bermed or surrounded by suitable containment. Liquids should not be allowed to escape.
7. The maximum height of the pile should be no more than 18 inches.
8. For small applications the soil should be put into 2-3 inch layers and then sprayed evenly with the bio-product. Then another 2-3 inch layer should be placed on the already sprayed soils and sprayed again. This process should be repeated until the yard of soil is completely treated. Approximately every two layers, soils should be stirred lightly with a garden rake.
9. Moisture content should be kept at 16-20% by periodic application of water, preferably de-chlorinated. Do not apply too much water as it will slow the bioremediation process.
10. BTEX and TPH should be checked in 30 days. NOTE: It is recommended that additional tilling be performed at the end of the second week. This is to ensure proper aeration of the soils.
Mixing Instructions for Bacterial Nutrient and LFS-1
1. The Bacterial Nutrient contains three compounds. The compounds are placed in the pail in layers. If less than the full 40 lbs. of Bacterial Nutrient is used, it must be pulverized and thoroughly mixed in the pail.
2. 11.5 ounces (by weight) of Bacterial Nutrient is used for each gallon of LFS-1. The Bacterial Nutrient is dissolved in clean water at a ratio of one part water/Nutrient mix to one part LFS-1. Example: 11.5 oz (dry weight) Bacterial Nutrient in one gallon of water for each gallon of LFS-1 used.
3. Since the Nutrient will activate any bacteria present, it should be dissolved in clean containers using clean water. It should not be allowed to sit for more than two hours before mixing with the LFS-1.
4. Once the Bacterial Nutrient solution is added to the LFS-1, the mixture must be used quickly since the Nutrient solution will cause the bacteria to undergo rapid growth.
Soil and Water Oil Treatment
55 gallons (208 l) per 110 cubic meters of soil or sand - 1,000,000 gallons (3,785,000 l) of water. One gallon of LFS-1 and one gallon of nutrient water (12 oz of nutrient in one gallon of water) will treat 4000 gallons of water that has been contaminated with oil and the oil is in a dissolved phase in the water.
Please contact us for the MSDS sheet!