Paraffin Digester

MICROBIAL CONTROL OF PARAFFIN, SCALE, CORROSION AND EMULSION
INTRODUCTION

Paraffin accumulation, corrosion, scale and emulsion formation have resulted in significant economic losses and reduced profitability for oil producers and operators. Traditional control methods such as hot oiling, chemical treating and scraping have been marginally successful and temporary at best. Often these methods have serious long term effects (especially in the case of hot oiling) on the productive life of the well.

Now there is a bacterial product that offers treatment programs that remove paraffin accumulations, inhibit corrosion or scale formation, and acts as emulsion breakers. This product, PARAFFIN DIGESTER (FORMERLY PARAGONE), is composed of naturally occurring microorganisms suspended in an aqueous solution. PARAFFIN DIGESTER (PD) is non-toxic and non-pathogenic. It will not harm humans, animals or plant life and requires no permits from the Environmental Protection Agency for transportation, use, or disposal.PD is not a solvent and is non-flammable and non-combustible. From a safety standpoint, the advantages over other treatments are obvious.

TREATMENT PROCEDURE

PD is batch treated and gravity fed or pumped into the well-bore annulus. Usually, little or no modification of wellhead plumbing is required to accommodate the treating equipment. Produced fluids from the storage facilities are not used as a treatment medium.

PARAFFIN REDUCTION IN THE WELL-BORE FLUIDS

Turbulence in the well fluids, created by inflow from the formation and pump action, will disperse PD throughout the well fluids. As the bacteria are dispersed they remove paraffin molecules.

The metabolic processes of the bacteria degrade and resolubilze the paraffin with two beneficial results. First, the petroleum will not reform paraffin deposits at any point in the pumping system, the flow lines, or the storage tanks; and secondly, the viscosity of the fluids can be reduced, which can result in a proportional increase in API gravity.

PARAFFIN REDUCTION IN THE FORMATION

Hot oiling over extended periods of time may reduce a formation's permeability and porosity at or near the well-bore. Because the PD bacteria are able to withstand extremes of pressure and velocity, they can gradually remove paraffin deposits that are partially interfering with the inflow to the well-bore. Eventually, the bacteria will remove the higher molecular weight paraffin's that have melting points above the formation temperature.

In instances where this type of paraffin accumulation is present, some increase in production can be expected, depending on the extent of the paraffin damage and the available production left in the formation. In some cases, this increase has been dramatic.

PARAFFIN IN THE PUMPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS

PD treatments are designed to provide sufficient volumes of bacteria to clean paraffin from mud anchors, gas anchors, performed nipples, pump valves, sucker rod strings and tubing walls. Eventually the bacteria may colonize in downstream production facilities, cleaning out flow lines and storage tanks. In recorded tests, BS&W or tank bottoms have been dramatically reduced by PD treatments.

EMULSION REDUCTION

Bacteria have proven useful in removing emulsions from production systems.

CORROSION INHIBITING PROCESS

The active organisms secrete and deposit a film of polysaccharide that forms a coating on well components. This coating reduces corrosion as long as the augmentation of the organisms is maintained.

OTHER TREATMENTS

Besides production wells, there are other applications for STRATA products in oil field areas. Disposal and water-flood projects can also be treated for scaling, paraffin and corrosion problems.

TREATMENT FOR YOUR COMPANY

If no chemicals or toxic materials are being injected into the well-bore, treatment can commence immediately. If chemicals or toxic chemicals are in the system or part of the treatment process, this should be discontinued for 7-10 days prior to the PD treatment.

COST EFFECTIVE

PD treatments are very cost effective when compared to conventional methods. Actual treatment cost depends on several factors including down-hole configuration, oil and water production rate, paraffin and scale deposits. One gallon of PD and one gallon of nutrient water (12 oz of nutrient in 1 gallon of water) will treat 200 gallons of oil sludge or emulsified oily water, if the objective is to recover the oil.

PARAGONE MECHANISMS

Paraffin Reduction

PD degrades and resolubilzers paraffin that accumulates in well-bores, production equipment and tank batteries. The mechanism involves two processes: 1) degradation of the paraffin and 2) surfactant (enzyme catalysts), produced by the bacteria cause the paraffin to become soluble in the oil again.

Scale Reduction

As stated previously, the PD bacteria produce surfactant s which cause paraffin and other precipitates to go back into solution. They also reduce available oxygen which inhibit reactions such as: Fe, SO3 + O = Fe SO4 (Sulfite to Sulfate). Iron Sulfate is less soluble than iron sulfite. In the case of compounds containing calcium and sodium, the bacteria will use calcium and sodium ions in metabolic reactions. Metabolically produced polysaccharide films coat and prevent nucleation of scale molecules.

Corrosion

The PD bacteria will scavenge the available oxygen thus making it less available for oxidation reactions such as corrosion. In addition the polysaccharide produced through metabolism will coat internal parts, placing a barrier between metal and corrosive elements.

Emulsion Reduction

Due to surfactant production and the elimination of free oxygen, emulsions tend to break down or not for form at all.

Due to the technical nature of the product and the application being treated, STRATA will need to work with you before, during and after PD is applied.

TECHNICAL RISK MANAGEMENT

Since 1993, the treatment procedure has been applied to several oil wells in a number of oil fields, with oils of different specifications. There has been no uncontrollable cloning of the bacteria. The cloning of the bacteria on site is controlled through the injection of nutrients to feed the bacteria. Once the flow of nutrients is discontinued, the bacteria disappear completely from the field.

PD is safely injected into the injector wells via the water flood injector wells, without any need for production well shut down. PD creates decreased oil viscosity, decreased cloud point, decreased oil viscosity, decreased pour point and decreased surface tension of oil to the rock grain, improving significantly the recovery ratio of oil. The cost of recovering oil, from wells reaching the end of their life, is a fraction of the traditional method. The Oil recovery ratio is significantly enhanced with PD treatment.

Procedure for Bench Test of Crude Oil with PD

All water used in the test must be tap water and must be dechlorinated prior to use. Do not use distilled water because it will not contain any minerals and will require buffering, as the nutrient will lower the pH below 6.0. In a 1000 ml Erlenmeyer flask add 250 ml of the nutrient/water and 250 ml of the dechlorinated tap water. Place the flask on a heating/stirring stand and set the heating temperature to 38 degrees C. Stir the mixture. Then check the pH of the mixture and if necessary, slowly add sodium hydroxide to raise the pH above 6.0. Shake the PD until it is uniform in appearance, as the product will separate. Add 250 ml of PD to the 1000 ml flask and stir for 45 mnutes at 38 degrees C. Add 250 ml of crude oil into the flask. The crude oil sample needs to be representative of the crude oil in the formation and not a solid piece of paraffin or asphaltene. Seal the flask with a stopper and set the stirring speed as high as possible to maintain even stirring of the fluid. Create and maintain a vortex if possible. Allow to stir for a maximum of 45 mintues or until the PD and crude oil have thoroughly mixed. Turn off stirring action, but leave the heat set at 38 degrees C. Continue the test until there are no more visible changes in the oil sample. You can check this by turning on the stirring action for about 5 mintues and then turing it off, or by shaking the flask by hand. Depending on the original viscosity of the oil, this test usually takes twenty-four to forty-eight hours to complete.

PD WELL TREATMENT PROCEDURE

Preparing PD, Nutrient Water and Flush Water for Treatment

PD is formulated by mxing equal parts PD and Petroleum/Oil Cleaner together prior to use.

Nutrient water is formulated by dissolving 8 oz of dry Nutrient in each gallon of clean fresh water. Dechlorinarte water if necessary. The volume of Nutrient water used equals the volume of PD used in the treatment.

Flush water is formulated by dissolving 12 oz of dry Nutrient in each bbl of clean fresh water. Dechlorinate if necessary. The volume of Flush water varies per well. For water sensitive formations, 2% KCL must be added to all fresh water used in the treatment.

Basic Procedure for Treating a Well Using PD

Item #
Description
Price
PG55
Paragone - 55 gallon (208 liter) drum - Special Custom Blend - Call for Pri
C a l l
C a l l